Definitions of the Glossary terms used in CRISMA

Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.


Acceptable risk search for term

Degree of human and material loss that is perceived by the community or relevant authorities as tolerable in actions to minimize disaster risk. (Sahana – Glossary)

Access control search for term

The ability to enforce a policy that identifies permissible actions on a particular resource by a particular subject. (SANY-SA, 2009)

Accident search for term

A sudden event in which harm is caused to people, property or the built or natural environment. (Sahana – Glossary)

Accident rate search for term

The number of reportable accidents related to the number of persons working, or the total number of hours worked, or to units, produced in an installation, company, etc. This enables, within limits, a comparison of the safety performance of various installations, companies, etc. provided exactly the same definitions for the accident rate are used. (Sahana – Glossary)

Adaptation search for term

The adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. This can be specific for climate change (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC), but also apply for other challenges such as soil erosion, migration and structural economic changes. Adaptation can occur in autonomous fashion, for example through market changes, or as a result of intentional adaptation policies and plans.

Advanced visualization search for term

Tools and models that rely on relevant/new/extraordinary visualization pat-terns or rely on user interaction concepts that seem to be relevant for CRISMA. This includes geographical displays (e.g. Geographical Information Systems, GIS).

Affected area search for term

Area under the consequences of the impacts predicted by the scenario.

Aftershock search for term

A smaller earthquake that follows the main shock and originates close to its focus. Aftershocks generally decrease in number and magnitude over time. (Sahana – Glossary)

Agent search for term

A kind of "autonomous" and “active” OOI that does have control over its behaviour, can act in the environment, perceive, and reason.

ALARA principle search for term

A risk should be reduced to a level this is As Low As Reasonably Achievable (Aven and Renn, 2010).

Alarm search for term

Signal giving warning of danger. (Sahana – Glossary)

ALARMEX search for term

Alarm Exercise, the main focuses of the alarm exercise is to test and activate the command and decision making levels from local levels and up to national. (Source: ESC internal exercise documents).

Alert search for term

Advisory that hazard is approaching but is less imminent than implied by warning message. (Sahana – Glossary)

Algorithm search for term

Effective method (formula) expressed as a finite list of well-defined parameters for calculating a cost function (direct or indirect).

ALOHA search for term

ALOHA is an existing tool for plume dispersal (Source:

Ante-normalization phase search for term

Variable duration phase after the end of the event that can be considered finished when all the physical and chemical parameters are again normalized.

Application search for term

See CRISMA application

Application architecture search for term

An Application Architecture provides a specification of application-specific Simulation Cases in accordance to the Integrated System Viewpoint of the Conceptual Business Logic of the CRISMA Framework Architecture.

Application programming interface search for term

An application programming interface (API) is a protocol intended to be used as an interface by software components to communicate with each other. See

Architectural approach for multisectoral application search for term

Architectural approaches to building crisis information management systems that address several sectors within and beyond crisis management and emergency response. Especially broad user groups and application areas within the domain characterize multisectoral applications for emergency response.

Architecture search for term

In computer science and engineering, computer architecture is the art that specifies the relations and parts of a computer system. See

Ash/rubble cleaning-up cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for removal and disposal of ash/rubble from roads, buildings and other structures.

Attribute search for term

A characteristic of an entity (e.g. of an object in a model or the model itself).

Authentication search for term

Concerns the identity of the participants in an exchange. Authentication refers to the means by which one participant can be assured of the identity of other participants. (SOA-RM, 2006)

Authorisation search for term

Concerns the legitimacy of the interaction. Authorisation refers to the means by which an owner of a resource may be assured that the information and actions that are exchanged are either explicitly or implicitly approved. (SOA-RM, 2006)


Back home cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for the “back home” of the population evacuated from the emergency area.

Behavioral scenario search for term

A kind of model that explains how the goals set for the socio-technical system (e.g., the ICMS) can be achieved by actors of the socio-technical system. Behavioral scenarios are used to elaborate goal models. They specify the order of achieving the sub-goals and the roles and resources required for that, as well as the output resulting from achieving the sub-goals (Sterling & Taveter, 2009). In CRISMA, a behavioral scenario describes the sequence of activities required for accomplishing the goals, roles involved in that, as well as the resources used as input and knowledge produced as output for a specific activity.

Building block search for term

A Building Block is an abstract concept describing specific functionality as an element of the CRISMA Framework. Building Blocks are generic, composable, adaptable as well as domain- and location-independent and thus transferable to different crisis management domains. There are three different types of Building Blocks: Infrastructure, Integration and User Interaction Building Blocks.

Business goal search for term

A business goal captures the reasoning why the system is applied from an economical view. Business goals therefore decribe one aspect of a potential return-on-investment of the overall-system CRISMA. Business goals therefore stem from deciders on strategic levels and can be used as selling-points towards authorities later on. (V-Model XT,

Business interruption cost search for term

The loss of profits and continuing expenses resulting from a break in activities due to a crisis.

Business logic search for term

A technical approach to represent situations and transitions between situations in the upper meaning. No separation between world, incident, response situations . A situation (x,t) is called “world state” (including time series).

Business Process Execution Language search for term

Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), short for Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is an OASIS[1] standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with web services. Processes in BPEL export and import information by using web service interfaces exclusively. (


Capability search for term

Capability can be viewed as the ability to perform actions.

Capacity search for term

Capacity is the combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within a community, society or organization that can be used to achieve agreed goals. Capacity may include capabilities such as infrastructure and physical means, institutions, societal coping abilities, as well as human knowledge, skills and collective attributes such as social relationships, leadership and management.

Cascade effects search for term

Cascade effects describe the effects (consequences) of cascade events and thus allow to evaluate indirect effects caused by the originating incident.

Cascade events search for term

Cascade events describe a sequence of adverse events generated by a single or different sources. For example an earthquake that causes ground motion that triggers a landslide.

Cascading effects search for term

see Cascade effects

Catalogue search for term

CRISMA Catalogue is a wiki-like web application and can be accessed through (if access permission exists). Its main purpose is to simplify the task of finding documentation on CRISMA Applications, Building blocks, Models, etc., and furthermore to see how all this information is linked together. The CRISMA glossary is now a integral part of the Catalogue.

Chemical accident search for term

Accidental release occurring during the production, transportation or handling of hazardous chemical substances. (Sahana – Glossary)

Civil defence search for term

The system of measures, usually run by a governmental agency, to protect the civilian population in wartime, to respond to disasters, and to prevent and mitigate the consequences of major emergencies in peacetime. The term "civil defence" is increasingly used..

Command Post Exercise search for term

Command Post Exercise, training exercise that may be conducted in base or in the field, an exercise, in which the forces are simulated, involving the commander, the staff, and communications within and between headquarters.

Communications’ facilitation search for term

This concept is demonstrated by tools designed to facilitate communications between actors during incident management. For the purpose of rapid and precise exchange of information in crisis situations, communications’ facilitation has to provide fault tolerant and reliable communications channels. These may include landline, internet, radio communication, etc. Communication tools must be able to automatically compile and send important information to collaborators.

Concept search for term

See CRISMA concept

Conceptual business logic search for term

In CRISMA the role of the conceptual business logic is to describe the key concepts of crisis management simulation, the analysis of simulation results and decision support. The logic represents an analysis viewpoint meaning: rather than looking at the “real” evolvement of a crisis the logic focuses on the Path of Analysis of a crisis management simulation that offers well defined possibilities to interfere and modify a simulation.

Conceptual model search for term

The CRISMA conceptual model (meta model) for crisis management describes conceptually how different types of world (environment) models, incident models, and response models are related and connected to each other for decision-making by crisis stakeholders.

Conceptual model for economic evaluation search for term

A framework which determines at the general level a structure and ideas of economic evaluation process in CRISMA before the prototype is defined.

Constituent search for term

Element (Software Component) of a CRISMA Application

Context of use search for term

In the human-computer interaction discipline, the context of use is the setting within an interaction takes place in terms of user characteristics, environmental conditions, and tasks.

Control and Communication Information Model search for term

The Control and Communication Information Model (CCIM) is defined in the ICMM in a lightweight, common, minimal and generic form, while each Federation can define its individual extension. It conceptualises the shared commonalities of all CRISMA reference scenarios.

Coping capacity search for term

​The ability of people, organizations and systems, using available skills and resources, to face and manage adverse conditions, emergencies or disasters. The capacity to cope requires continuing awareness, resources and good management, both in normal times as well as during crises or adverse conditions. Coping capacities contribute to the reduction of disaster risks. (2009 UN-ISDR)

Cost breakdown structure search for term

A hierarchical structure which includes all cost items relevant to the current case and divides larger cost items into smaller and more concrete cost parameters which are easier to give a monetary value.

Cost-benefit analysis search for term

An evaluation method to determine the feasibility of a project/plan/investment (for example a mitigation measure) by quantifying its costs and benefits to help to make a decision.

Cost-effectiveness search for term

Cost - effectiveness can be calculated by using a ratio by dividing costs of an investment (e.g. mitigation measure) by units of effectiveness. For a mitigation measure, the number of lives saved would be an obvious unit of effectiveness.

Cost-efficiency search for term

The act of saving money by performing an activity in a better way. The cost efficiency of a mitigation measure is largely based on the avoidance or reduction of negative consequences of a crisis.

Crisis search for term

A crisis (from the Greek κρίσις - krisis; plural: "crises"; adjectival form: "critical") is any event that is, or is expected to lead to, an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or whole society. Crises are deemed to be negative changes in the security, economic, political, societal, or environmental affairs, especially when they occur abruptly, with little or no warning. More loosely, it is a term meaning an 'emergency event'. (

Crisis management search for term

The process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. (

Crisis management cycle search for term

Crisis management is a multiple-phase process, with the phases often paralleling, rather than merely running sequentially, as implied by common cycle illustration. A widely used 4-phases cycle defines the "Preparedness", "Response", "Mitigation" and "Recovery" phases. Within EU, the "Mitigation" phase is often replaced by "Prevention". (

Crisis management phases search for term

See crisis management cycle

Crisis management simulation analysis search for term

Comparison and analysis of different World States, Alternatives and related Transitions enables crisis managers to explore the effects of changes in mitigation strategies affecting vulnerabilities based on related World State Data. In CRISMA this Crisis Management Simulation Analysis has three variants: The assessment of planning options, training i.e. the education of stakeholders, decision support for crisis management activities
For each of the three variants CRISMA supports Crisis Management Simulation Analysis on three levels: (1) Exploration of World State Data, (2) Comparison and assessment of aggregated data. (3) Algebraic Comparison that enables e.g. ranking.

Crisis management simulation integration approach search for term

An approach towards the integration of several simulations/models in order to support crisis management. Other tasks within crisis management (e.g., resource management) may also be fulfilled within this kind of approach (e.g., by an integrated database to administer resources).

Crisis management simulation system search for term

A system for simulating possible impacts on crisis management resulting from alternative actions and decisions.

Crisis scenario search for term

A scenario describing a crisis as it has happened or could happen in real life.

CRISMA application search for term

A CRISMA Application is an integrated crisis management simulation system that is build according to the concepts of the CRISMA Framework Architecture. It is composed of (customised) Building Blocks of the CRISMA Framework and integrated or federated legacy components (simulation models, applications, systems, ...).

CRISMA developer search for term

A person that realises a CRISMA application with support of the CRISMA framework.

CRISMA end-user search for term

A person that either uses a CRISMA application directly within a use case or is a stakeholder who gains insights from another person using a CRISMA application for simulation runs.

CRISMA expert search for term

A person that uses either a configuration file or a CRISMA application to prepare a simulation case.

CRISMA federate search for term

Any component that connects to the Middleware Infrastructure of the CRISMA Framework and is able to exchange Control and Communication Information with the Middleware Infrastructure. More specifically, a CRISMA Federate has to be aware of the API of the ICMM.

CRISMA federation search for term

A number of CRISMA Federates that act together as a unit. A CRISMA Federation is a subset of a CRISMA Application.

CRISMA framework search for term

A framework composed of ready-to-use Building Blocks and supporting tools that can be connected together to form a CRISMA Application.

CRISMA impact search for term

CRISMA impact is the expected outcome and effect of CRISMA project. Also see impact.

CRISMA setup expert search for term

A person that uses either a configuration file or a CRISMA application to prepare a simulation case.

CRISMA system search for term

In the perception of the architecture, the CRISMA System is the overall project results consisting of all CRISMA Applications.

Criteria search for term

Criteria relate indicators to a qualitative assessment of the respective crisis situation. Indicators and corresponding criteria are the basis for the CRISMA decision support concept.

Criteria function search for term

A Criteria function maps an indicator to a criterion.


Damage classification search for term

Evaluation and recording of damage to structures, facilities, or objects according to three (or more) categories, such as: 1. "severe damage" which precludes further use of the structure, facility, or object for its intended purpose. 2. "moderate damage" or the degree of damage to principal members, which precludes effective use of the structure, facility, or object for its intended purpose, unless major repairs are made short of complete reconstruction. 3. "light damage" such as broken windows, slight damage to roofing and siding, interior partitions blown down, and cracked walls; the damage is not severe enough to preclude use of the installation for the purpose for which was intended. (OFDA) (Sahana – Glossary)

Damage cost search for term

Includes both costs of direct physical damages as well as indirect and secondary impacts arising from a crisis.

Data management search for term

Data management encompasses the management of information about crisis management resources and other objects of interest. This concept is demonstrated by tools that provide access to a database relevant for crisis management.

Database of scenarios search for term

A collection of plausible scenarios of cascading effects.

Decision making search for term

Decision making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. (Wikipedia, 2013)

Decision node search for term

Element of a decision tree which represents a decision (e.g., to assess different possible mitigation actions) to be taken in a particular segment of a decision tree.

Decision point search for term

A point in time where the user wants to introduce a decision to compare what will be the outcome of different options. In CRISMA, visualisation is done on a time line to show where a decision has been met.

Decision support system search for term

Decision Support Systems (DSS) make up a specific class of computerized information systems that support business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers to compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions.

Decision tree search for term

A time line with branches showing options in each decision point. Not only useful as visualisation of decisions but also for navigation to compare different states at the same or different time stamps.

Decision-making process search for term

The process of examining possibilities and options, comparing them, and choosing the way of action.

Demonstration search for term

A demonstration presents relevant aspects of a CRISMA demonstrator at a specific place and date to a specific audience within a specific pilot.

Demonstrator search for term

A demonstration presents relevant aspects of a CRISMA demonstrator at a specific place and date to a specific audience within a specific pilot.

Developer search for term

see CRISMA developer

Development platform search for term

Software development platforms are technologies that support application developers in developing simulation models and tools for crisis management.

Direct cost search for term

The costs of consequences of the initial crisis situation that will be felt immediately.

Disaster search for term

A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. (2009 UN-ISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction)

Disaster risk management search for term

The systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster. Disaster risk management aims to avoid, lessen or transfer the adverse effects of hazards through activities and measures for prevention, mitigation and preparedness. (2009 UN-ISDR)


Economic evaluation search for term

The comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences (monetary values) in order to assist decisions. A monetary i.e. financial evaluation method. In CRISMA a method to estimate the costs (and benefits) of a crisis and to evaluate the costs and benefits of different mitigation measures over a time span.

Economic evaluation method search for term

A monetary i.e. financial evaluation method. In CRISMA a method to estimate the costs (and benefits) of a crisis and to evaluate the costs and benefits of different mitigation measures over a time span.

Economic impact search for term

Crisis impacts that are generally described in terms of direct and indirect costs (and benefits). Comprising both economic impacts of a baseline situation and a situation after implementing a mitigation measure or a set of measures.

Elements at risk search for term

Population, buildings and engineering works, infrastructure, environmental features, cultural values and economic activities in an area potentially affected by an event (e.g. landslide).

Emergency search for term

Any incident, whether natural, technological, or human-caused, that requires responsive action to protect life or property (FEMA Glossary, 2013)

Emergency and rescue operation cost search for term

Any cost related to assistant or intervention during or immediately after a crisis to meet the life preservation and basic subsistence of those people affected.

Emergency management search for term

The organization and management of resources and responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and initial recovery steps. (2009 UN-ISDR)

Emergency management cost search for term

Related to the activities and to the units engaged in the emergency phase as operating structures, vehicles, equipment, and volunteers. For example, the cost related to the number of men committed in each operating structure to manage the emergency.

End user search for term

see CRISMA end-user

Enterprise Service Bus search for term

Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a software architecture model used for designing and implementing the interaction and communication between mutually interacting software applications in service-oriented architecture (SOA). See

Entity search for term

Active (agent) or passive (object) OOI.

Evacuation search for term

1- Emergency evacuation: Removal of persons from a dangerous place due to a disaster (e.g. in the context of pilot D)
2- Casualty movement: the procedure for moving a casualty from its initial location to an ambulance (e.g. in the context of pilot C)
(Wikipedia, 2013)

Evacuation assistance cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for giving continuous assistance to the population evacuated from the emergency area.

Evacuation operation cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for the evacuation of the population from the affected area, according to the specific needs included in the individual municipal plans.

Evaluation search for term

Evaluation is “systematic investigation of the worth or merit of an object.” (Frechtling 2011). Evaluation is a valuable source of information on how a project is being implemented, specifically, what works and what should be modified.

Event search for term

Phase associated with the natural catastrophe occurrence, usually of short duration, and characterised by a severe modification of the scenario.

Evolution scenario search for term

A combination of several impact scenarios resulting from multiple hazards/incidents.

Ex-ante search for term

Something taking place before the event in question.

Ex-post search for term

Something taking place after the event in question.

Exercise search for term

An exercise can be a field training exercise (real ambulances and responders in a training setting) or a simulation exercise (planning or training session using information system support).

Experiment search for term

see Experimentation

Experimentation search for term

Experimentation in CRISMA asks the audience for a specific interaction with a CRISMA demonstrator. It aims at testing if the target audience is able to interact with the CRISMA application and to interpret the result. It aims also at evaluating the quality of the added value of the application for the audience’s specific needs.

Expert search for term

see CRISMA expert

Exposure search for term

People, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses (UNISDR, 2009).

Extensible Markup Language search for term

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. See (XML, 2010)

External uncertainty search for term

Extrinsic uncertainty means for the decision maker there are always gaps between the knowledge required to responding to the crisis and knowledge acquired.

Extrinsic uncertainty search for term

See External uncertainty.


Feature search for term

A "Feature" (ISO 19101, OGC 08-126) is "an abstraction of a real world phenomenon". A feature is considered "geographic feature" if it is associated with a location. According to OGC 08-126, the geographic features are "fundamental unit of geospatial information".

Federate search for term

see CRISMA federate

Field training excercise search for term

Field Training Exercise (FTX) – they are usually practice "mini-battles" which pro-vide fairly realistic scenarios and situations based on actual situations a unit might face if deployed. (Source:

First aid search for term

The immediate but temporary care given on site to the victims of an accident or sudden illness in order to avert complications, lessen suffering, and sustain life until competent services or a physician can be obtained. (Sahana – Glossary)

Framework search for term

An information architecture that comprises, in terms of software design, a reusable software template, or skeleton, from which key enabling and supporting services can be selected, configured and integrated with application code. See
More specific see CRISMA framework

Functional requirement search for term

Defines a function of a software system or its component. A function is described as a set of inputs, the behaviour, and outputs. See

Functional specification search for term

A functional specification is the implementation independent description of a software components behaviour which means that operations are specified on an abstract level not defining specific data types or schemas. It is the basis for a formal specification.


General Morphological Analysis search for term

General Morphological Analysis is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky in 1967. It aims to view all the interest objects in a global view as a whole.

Goal model search for term

A goal model is a container of three components: goals, quality goals, and roles. A (functional) goal is a representation of a functional requirement of the socio-technical system. A quality goal is a non-functional or quality requirement of the system. Goals and quality goals can be further decomposed into smaller related sub-goals and sub-quality goals (Sterling & Taveter, 2009).

Graphical User Interface search for term

Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows users to interact with a computer through click and drag operations (e.g. with a mouse) instead of entering text at a command line.


Hazard search for term

A “dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition” (UNISDR, 2009) - characterized by its location, intensity, frequency and probability - that may cause adverse impacts on a social (e.g, loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic services disruption) or environmental (e.g., ecological damages) system (e.g., Pelling et al., 2004; Birkmann et al., 2013; Dewan, 2013)

Hazard model search for term

Hazard models are a piece of software and/or related data to simulate hazardous events.

Health intervention cost search for term

Related to the health care management like the implementation of medical structures, the psychological and social assistance, the distribution of protective masks to protect from volcanic ash in times of relapse, chemical analysis, etc.

High-level architecture search for term

A general purpose architecture for distributed computer simulation systems. High-level architecture (HLA) is an open international standard developed by the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) and published by IEEE. See

Hypertext Transfer Protocol search for term

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is standard protocol for data transport in the world wide web (WWW). See (RFC_1945, 1996) and (RFC_2616, 1999)


ICC elements search for term

Indicators, criteria and cost (ICC) elements are used to provide selected or aggregated information about world states or scenarios

ICC function search for term

Indicators, criteria and cost (ICC) functions are used to calculate ICC elements from world state data.

ICMS user handbook search for term

The Integrated Crisis Management Simulation System (ICMS) user handbook is part of the CRISMA Catalogue and contains technical information about the software bricks being developed within CRISMA. It is to be used by the pilot application developers to develop their pilot applications.

Impact search for term

Consequences of a hazardous event once it materializes, i.e. actually affects a societal system.

Impact assessment search for term

In the context of a project: Assessment of the nouvelty value of the CRISMA outcomes and what difference do they make in comparison to the state-of-the-art situation.
In the context of crisis management: Assessment of the impact of events.

Impact model search for term

Impact models represent the consequences of hazardous events.

Impact scenario search for term

Time-dependent scenario focusing on the effects of the event chain. Consequences of the several events, hazards and countermeasures of a scenario.

In-situ search for term

Something existing or taking place in its original place or position.

Incident search for term

An occurrence, natural or human-caused, that requires a response to protect life or property. Incidents can, for example, include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response (FEMA Glossary, 2013).

Indicator search for term

A thing that indicates the state or level of something (Oxford dictionaries). In CRISMA, an Indicator is an aggregation of elements of a world state produced by an indicator function and is one element of an indicator vector. Indicators are a concept that helps us to bring more structure in World States with the help of an indicator function (aggregating thus losing information) so we can do e.g. algebraic computations on this representation of world states for the benefit of being able to better evaluate complex World State data.

Indicator function search for term

An Indicator function produces an aggregated image of a world state.

Indicator vector search for term

An Indicator vector is an instance in an indicator space and contains of a number of indicators as elements.

Indirect cost search for term

Flows of costs (and benefits) that occur over a time after a crisis and inside or outside of the crisis area.

Information model search for term

An information model is a representation of concepts, relationships, constraints, rules, and operations to specify data structure and semantics for a chosen domain of discourse. The advantage of using an information model is that it can provide shareable, stable, and organized structure of information requirements for the domain context. (Lee, 1999).

Infrastructure search for term

Infrastructure in a crisis management context covers for instance dikes, hospitals, rescue bases and critical infrastructure (as water, power, telecommunication networks) etc.

Intangible cost search for term

Intangible costs are typically those for which no market exists and there is no systematic or agreed method available to measure them. Comprising both direct and indirect intangible cost.

Integrated component search for term

A component that takes part in an interaction of CRISMA Federates but is not itself a CRISMA Federate. It is not CRISMA-aware and thus does not interact with the CRISMA Middleware Infrastructure. An Integrated Component may be a member of a CRISMA Application but not of a CRISMA Federation.

Integrated Crisis Management Middleware search for term

The ICMM (Integrated Crisis Management Middleware) is a central Building Block in every CRISMA Application. It connects Crisis Management Simulations with the Analyis and Decisison Support functionality of CRISMA by providing a central repository for harmonized world state and indicator information. The ICMM is fed by simulations providing the basic information to be used for world state analysis and decision support Building Blocks.

Interface search for term

In the context of IT, a named set of operations that characterise the behaviour of an entity. The aggregation of operations in an interface, and the definition of the interface, shall be for the purpose of software re-usability. The specification of an interface shall include a static portion that includes definition of the operations. The specification of an interface shall include a dynamic portion that includes any restrictions on the order of invoking the operations. (ISO_19119, 2003)

Internal uncertainty search for term

Internal uncertainty means the decision makers as a team has always has his/her goals associated with responsibilities from its agency, respectively, facing making decisions.

Interoperability search for term

Capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units. (ISO_19119, 2003)

Interoperability platform search for term

A platform that enables interoperability between several information systems, simulation solutions, or organizational entities. Crisis management simulation integration approaches make up a special kind of interoperability platform.

Intrinsic uncertainty search for term

See Internal uncertainty.

Investment cost search for term

All costs incurred prior to implementation of an investment (e.g. a mitigation measure). Investment cost describes the total amount of money necessary to put a measure into operation.


Key performance indicator search for term

A Key performance indicator (KPI) is a prominent performance indicator that is of particular importance e.g. because it relates to legal obligations.Key performance indicator help to characterise and compare alternative scenarios with respect to the crisis management measures that have been done.


Legacy application search for term

A legacy application is a computer application based on outdated operational systems, software architecture or hardware component, which often is a challenge for integration with state-of-the-art frameworks and interoperability approaches.

Legacy component search for term

A legacy component is a software component based on outdated software and concepts. See legacy application.

Legacy model search for term

A legacy model is a software realization of a model based on outdated operational systems, software architecture or hardware component, which often is a challenge for integration with state-of-the-art frameworks and interoperability approaches.

Legacy system search for term

A legacy system is a computer system based on outdated operational systems, software architecture or hardware component, which often is a challenge for integration with state-of-the-art frameworks and interoperability approaches.

Logistics management search for term

Concepts and tools that help organizations to locate, request, track, and dispatch assets (people, equipment, and supplies) needed to manage an incident. The IT-support of logistics management is strongly connected to the terms data management, communications facilitation, and advanced visualization.

Loose simulation integration search for term

Integration of several simulation solutions at a higher level that does not imply communication between simulation engines/models at run time. In loose simulation integration, output data of one simulation run may serve as the input data for another. An example of loose coupling of simulation models is a simple GIS-based building-evacuation-model database.

Losses search for term

The amount of realized damages as consequence of an occurred hazard. A typical subdivision of the type of losses is between direct losses (as consequences of the damage caused by adverse events) and indirect losses (business interruptions caused by an occurred hazard).

Losses evaluation model search for term

Losses evaluation models are calculation rules or functions to translate the
result of impact models into valuable cost information.

Lost lives search for term

Monetary value evaluation of human lives lost as a result of the event.


Market and mission goal search for term

Goals of the CRISMA project in terms of market and mission-benefits that main stakeholders and potential customers/civil protection authorities may gain.

Mashup platform search for term

A component that allows to combine smaller components (widgets) providing specific functionality into a complete graphical user interface (GUI) to provide all the functionality needed

Mental model search for term

The users mental model is "what the user belives about the system at hand" or "what users know (or think to know) about the system". Users "base their predictions about the system on their mental models and thus plan their future actions based on how that model predicts the approrpriate course." User Interface designers are supposed to "make the user interface communicate the system's basic nature well enough that users form reasonable accurate mental models". (Different users might have different mental models of the same user interface.) Usability engineering tries to minimize the "gap between designer's and user's mental models". (see

Mental model search for term

"A mental model is what the user believes about the system at hand."The mental model represents what users know (or think they know) about a system. "Users base their predictions about the system on their mental models and thus plan their future actions based on how that model predicts the appropriate course." ( Usability engineering tries to reduce the gap between the user interface designers' and the users' mental models.

Meta-information search for term

Descriptive information about resources in the universe of discourse. Its structure is given by a Meta-Information Model depending on a particular purpose. Note: A resource by itself does not necessarily need Meta-Information. The need for Meta-Information arises from additional tasks or a particular purpose (like catalogue organisation), where many different resources (services and data objects) must be handled by common methods and therefore have to have/get common attributes and descriptions (like a location or the classification of a book in a library). (RM-OA, 2007)

Meta-information model search for term

Information-model for Meta-Information. See Meta-model and Meta-information.

Meta-model search for term

A meta-model typically defines the language and processes from which to form a (description) model. Meta-modelling is the modelling methodology used in software engineering. See In this IT context "model" usually means "data model" or "information model" - a description of data structures.

Meta-modelling search for term

Meta-modelling is the analysis, construction and development of the frames, rules, constraints, models and theories applicable and useful for the modelling in a predefined class of problems. See

Mitigation search for term

(1) The lessening or limitation of the adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters.
(2) One of the phases of the Crisis Management Cycle. Often replaced by "Prevention" within EU

Mitigation cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for the risk mitigation. The risk can be mitigated by working on the consistency of the value exposed to the hazard and on its vulnerability.

Mock-up search for term

Painted (by pencil or by computer drawing tool) representation of a human-computer-interaction dialogue. A special variant is a paper-mock-up (done by pencil and paper).

Model search for term

A model is a hypothetical simplified description of a complex entity or process (Sterling & Taveter, 2009). A model can be considered as “an abstract representation of a system or process” (Carson, 2005). A model is a physical, mathematical, or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process that has been designed for a specific purpose (NATO, 2010). Stachowiak (1973) describes a model using three features: the mapping feature (reproduction of the original), the reduction feature (abstraction of the original) and the pragmatic feature (addressing a purpose for its user).

Monitoring cost search for term

Related to the activities necessary to enhance instrumental networks for the monitoring of risk-prone areas for example from a seismological, geochemical and geodetic perspective.

Monte Carlo simulation search for term

Monte Carlo simulation is a method which uses random samples of parameters or inputs to explore the behaviour of a complex system or process.

Multi-hazard assessment search for term

To determine the probability of occurrence of different hazards either occurring at the same time or shortly following each other, because they are dependent from one another or because they are caused by the same triggering event or hazard, or merely threatening the same elements at risk without chronological coincidence. (Commission staff working paper: “Risk assessment and mapping guidelines for disaster management”, European Commission, Brussels, December 2010)

Multi-risk assessment search for term

To determine the whole risk from several hazards, taking into account possible hazards and vulnerability interactions (a multi-risk approach entails a multi-hazard and multi-vulnerability perspective).
This would include the events:
1) occurring at the same time or shortly following each other, because they are dependent on one another or because they are caused by the same triggering event or hazard; this is mainly the case of cascading events;
2) or threatening the same elements at risk (vulnerable/exposed elements) without chronological coincidence (EU Matrix)


Natural hazard search for term

Natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.

Non-functional requirement search for term

A requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviours. See

Normalization phase search for term

Phase characterised by the absence of change in the physical–chemical parameters; it can be considered as the phase in which everything is turned back as it was before the event occurrence. It comes before the rest phase, according to a circular logic.


Object search for term

A kind of “passive” OOI that encapsulates some state, is able to perform actions or operations on this state, does not have control over its behaviour but exposes to its environment an interface of the methods to be invoked by external entities.

Object of interest search for term

Object of Interest (OOI) is used in CRISMA to designate objects that are of interest to crisis management practitioners and therefore need to be represented and handled by a CRISMA Application. More precisely, the term is used for IT-representation of such objects within CRISMA. The term was initially introduced as disambiguation of the word "resources". However, the OOI can also represent objects which aren't considered resources by crisis managers, such as hospitals, dams or residential buildings. Since OOI instances always exist in a spatial and temporal context, OOI can be considered a specialization of the "Feature" as defined by ISO 19101 and OGC 08-126.

Open Geospatial Consortium search for term

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international industry consortium of 480 companies, government agencies and universities participating in a consensus process to develop publicly available interface standards. OGC® Standards support interoperable solutions that "geo-enable" the Web, wireless and location-based services and mainstream IT. The standards empower technology developers to make complex spatial information and services accessible and useful with all kinds of applications. (OGC, 2013)

Open Modelling Interface search for term

Open Modelling Interface (Open-MI) is a standard defines a set of interfaces that allowing time-dependent models to exchange data at run-time. See

OpenId search for term

A standard for user identification. (see‎)

Operating cost search for term

All costs incurred after implementation of an investment (e.g. a mitigation measure) and are related to the operation of a measure. Operating costs include both fixed costs and variable costs.

Operational level search for term

Level of actions, management and decisions with short time span and narrow focus compared to strategic level. Typically running of day-to-day activities or in a crisis situation reactionary and proactive actions in relation to the immediate situation at hand.

Order of alarm and action search for term

The Order of Alarm and Action (OAA) (German: Alarm- und Ausrückeordnung) defines by law which resources shall be deployed for which incident (number of injured, chemical incident, etc.)


Parameter search for term

Element included in the method of calculation of an algorithm. It can assume different values, depending on the kind of scenario simulated.

Path of analysis search for term

A Path of Analysis is a consecutive sequence of Transitions through a Simulation Case Graph. A Path of Analysis that starts at the root of a Simulation Case and ends at a leaf can be called a Simulated Crisis Management Scenario.

Performance Indicator search for term

A Performance indicator is an Indicator that can be used to assess the result of an Experiment. In that sense there must always be a corresponding criterion defining the level of satisfaction regarding a specific decision objective.

Physical Vulnerability search for term

Physical Vulnerability expresses the propensity of an asset (or generically element at risk, or Object Of Interest OOI) to sustain a certain damage level in a suitably defined damage scale

Pilot search for term

A pilot within CRISMA manages the definition and implementation of a CRISMA pilot application and provides the data for a specific crisis scenario and for a specific use case. This results in a demonstrator that is used during a demonstration and for experimentation purposes in order to validate the CRISMA software. CRISMA pilots (pilot sites) provide generic experimentation frame and validations for testing, validating and promoting CRISMA system and provide necessary return of experience in order to validate CRISMA in relevant wide range of crisis management situations including multi-risk and domino effects.

Pilot demo phase search for term

The actual testing phase of a CRISMA application building, modelling and Simulation by a the pilot.

Point of interest search for term

A specific point location that someone may find useful or interesting (see In CRISMA context, the Point of Interest (POI) is a map object, usually visualized with a marker/icon on the map. POI is an object with properties, like geographic location, and/or some properties characterizing this object. The POI can represent both passive (like buildings, bridges, etc.) and active objects (e.g. agents as representatives of some physical or virtual entities) on the map.

Preparedness search for term

(1) The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions.
(2) One of the phases of the Crisis Management Cycle

Prevention search for term

One of the phases of the Crisis Management Cycle (mainly used in EU, see "Mitigation"). Prevention (i.e. disaster prevention) encompasses activities designed to provide permanent protection against disasters. It includes engineering and other physical protective measures, and also legislative measures controlling land use and urban planning. (2009 UN-ISDR, Sahana – Glossary)

Probabilistic hazard search for term

The probability that a given adverse event of a given intensity will occur in a certain area within a defined time interval. For quantitative risk assessment purposes, the results of the hazard assessment are often summarized in the form of a ‘hazard curve’ that relates a given ‘intensity measure’ indicator with whether its occurrence probability (non-cumulative form) or an ‘overcome a threshold’ probability (cumulative form).

Public awareness search for term

The process of informing the community as to the nature of the hazard and actions needed to save lives and property prior to and in the event of disaster. (Sahana – Glossary)


Real scenario search for term

Scenario developed for the modelling and simulation of a historic crisis.

Recognition Primed Decision search for term

Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model (Klein 1993) is one of the most influential in the literature of decision making by experts. This RPD models how people make quick, effective decisions when faced with complex situations. RPD obeys a recognition strategy, and it can be adaptive, to allow experienced decision makers to respond effectively. From then on, Klein’s RPM model has been extended and even developed into a new research area Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM).

Reconstruction cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for removing the physical damage to capital assets including buildings, infrastructure and industrial plants through “in place” or “delocalized” reconstruction.

Recovery search for term

(1) The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors.
(2) One of the phases of the Crisis Management Cycle

Reduction of value Added for evacuation search for term

The decrease of the value of the production, as it was before the event, due to the absence of activity in the area caused by evacuation of resident population and, consequently, on human labor

Reduction of value added for psychological effect search for term

The decrease of the value of the production, as it was before the event, due to the psychological effects caused by emergency on resident population and, consequently, on human labor.

Reference Application search for term

A Reference Application is a completely integrated and functional demonstration of how CRISMA goals may be attained, in one or more particular domain(s). Hence, a reference application is the transferable “wiring together” of building blocks without any pilot-specific logic. Reference Applications are not necessarily industry-grade, production-mature software suites; rather, their purpose is to demonstrate how CRISMA concepts can be (not necessarily should be) implemented in their particular domain.
So, reference applications demonstrate how the CRISMA models and building blocks can be used to build various applications pertinent to crisis management. The presentation targets developers and integrators rather than end users.

Reference architecture search for term

A reference architecture "is an architectural design pattern that indicates how an abstract set of mechanisms and relationships realizes a predetermined set of requirements. One or more reference architectures may be derived from a common reference model, to address different purposes/usages to which the Reference Model may be targeted." (SOA-RM, 2006)

Reference model search for term

An abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment. It enables the development of specific reference or concrete architectures using consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment. A reference model consists of a minimal set of unifying concepts, axioms and relationships within a particular problem domain, and is independent of specific standards, technologies, implementations, or other concrete details. (SOA-RM, 2006)

Reference scenario search for term

Reference scenarios are abstract crisis and response scenarios that help to understand the relevant aspects of a typical scenario.

Rehabilitation cost search for term

Related to the activities provided for removing the physical damage to capital assets, including buildings, infrastructure and industrial plants by the rehabilitation of damaged.

Representational State Transfer search for term

Representational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed systems such as the World Wide Web. REST has emerged as a predominant web service design model. See (REST, 2013)

Requirement search for term

A singular documented physical and functional need that CRISMA system should perform. It is a statement that identifies a necessary attribute, capability, characteristic, or quality of a system for it to have value and utility to a user. (Source:

Residual risk search for term

The risk that remains in unmanaged form, even when effective disaster risk reduction measures are in place, and for which emergency response and recovery capacities must be maintained. The presence of residual risk implies a continuing need to develop and support effective capacities for emergency services, preparedness, response and recovery together with socio-economic policies such as safety nets and risk transfer mechanisms. (2009 UN-ISDR)

Resilience search for term

The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. Resilience means the ability to “resile from” or “spring back from” a shock. The resilience of a community in respect to potential hazard events is determined by the degree to which the community has the necessary resources and is capable of organizing itself both prior to and during times of need. (2009 UN-ISDR)

Resource search for term

Crisis management context: Resources are deployed in the scope of crisis management activities. Resources may include material (e.g. sandbags, medical products, oxygen tank), personnel (e.g. medical officer, ambulance driver, crisis manager), vehicles (e.g. fire trucks), protection infrastructure and facilities (e.g. hospital, shelters), installations (e.g. weirs).
IT-context: Resource is every possible data object as part of the common CRISMA meta information model.

Resource management search for term

Crisis management context: the interactions between actors in crisis management and how they affect each other including the steering and governance of crisis response actions and resources such as vehicles, personnel and equipment.
IT-context: Management in terms of storage, creation, update and delete of data objects in the context of IT implementation.

Response search for term

Immediate actions to save and sustain lives, protect property and the environment, and meet basic human needs. Response also includes the execution of plans and actions to support short-term recovery. (FEMA, 2010)

Rest phase search for term

Medium–long duration phase and complete absence of phenomena that may precede a natural catastrophe.

Risk search for term

The combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.

Risk analysis search for term

A systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the magnitude of their likely consequences.

Risk mitigation cost search for term

Risk reduction costs. Refer to any costs attributed to research and design, the set-up, operation and maintenance of mitigation measures, to any costs occurring in economic activities/sectors that are not directly linked to measure investment and to any nonmarket impacts of risk mitigation measures.

Roadmap search for term

In the context of the CRISMA project: An illustration of how evaluation and validation are carried out in connection to other CRISMA activities.

Role search for term

A prescribed or expected behavior associated with a particular position or status in a group or organization. In CRISMA this covers two dimensions: First, the role within a crisis management scenario. Second, the role related to the setup and use of a CRISMA application.

Run-Time Infrastructure search for term

Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) is service Bus providing HLA services. See High-level Architecture (HLA) and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB).


Sahana search for term

The Sahana Software Foundation is dedicated to the mission of saving lives by providing information management solutions that enable organizations and communities to better prepare for and respond to disasters. (Source:

Sample scenario search for term

Crisis and response scenario representing either real past events or imaginary events specified in detail.

Scenario search for term

A scenario describes the development of a situation over time. Crisis management scenarios are used to understand the impact of hazards and to evaluate the outcomes of alternative mitigation actions within changing conditions. In the CRISMA architecture, such scenarios are represented as consecutive world states.

Scenario description search for term

In the context of CRISMA it includes text, timeline and tables that describe a crisis management scenario.

Scenario description for economic evaluation search for term

Describes all quantitative data of crisis impacts (excluding economic data) of a given scenario produced by CRISMA models that can be used as an input for the economic evaluation model.

Scenario evolution search for term

Sequential development of a scenario describing events as they could evolve based on alternative assumptions.

Screenshot search for term

A screenshot is a real screen-capture of a dialogue window of an interactive system, while a mock-up is painted rough illustration of a such.

Sensor Observation Service search for term

Sensor Observation Service (SOS) is one of the OGC standards. Specifies a service interface and data encoding methods for sensor data access. See (SOS, 2012)

Sensor Planning Service search for term

Sensor Planning Service (SPS) is one of the OGC standards. Specifies service interface and data encodings to control sensors, where sensor is a very wide concept ranging from simple things like a thermometer to earth observation satellites and also, including simulation models. See (SPS, 2011).

Sensor Web Enablement search for term

Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) is a suite of standards developed by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) describing basic data and service models used in other OGC standards. See (SWEdata, 2011) and (SWEservice, 2011

Service search for term

In the context of IT, a service is a distinct part of the functionality that is provided by an entity through interfaces. (ISO_19119, 2003)

Service Oriented Architecture search for term

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a style of software architecture for designing and developing software in the form of interoperable services. See

Simple Object Access Protocol search for term

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. See

Simulated World search for term

see World state space

Simulation search for term

A simulation is the manipulation of a model in such a way that it represents the expected behaviour of an individual actor or an entire system over time (NATO, 2010). In CRISMA a simulation is a computational process that uses World state data and Simulation control parameters as input and produces another World state containing the Simulation result.

Simulation case search for term

A simulation case describes the user context, the objects of interests, the simulation models, simulation objectives and the user interactions that are relevant for the modelling and simulation of a crisis management scenario with a CRISMA application.

Simulation control parameter search for term

Simulation control paramters are parmeters necessary to perform and influence a Simulation but are not part of the input World State. The range of values of Simulation control paramters defines how the end user can influence a simulation. E.g. alternatives share the same original World state and Simulation type using different Simulation control parameters and thus leading to a different result.

Simulation exercise search for term

Decision making exercise and disaster drills within threatened communities in order to represent disaster situations to promote more effective coordination of response from relevant authorities and the population. (Sahana – Glossary). In CRISMA context, a simulation exercise refers to instance of a simulation case in training or planning context.

Simulation model search for term

A software that implements a model and allows simulation, no matter if it provides an own user interface or operates integrated in a larger software.

Simulation models loose integration search for term

Describes a low level of integration between two or more simulation models, when a running simulation model is not aware of other running simulation models. The output of one simulation model can be used as the input for the next simulation model. This level of integration is required when two simulation models are running in-parallel with no need to share information during the run.

Simulation models tight integration search for term

Describes a high level of integration between two or more simulation models at runtime. This level of integration is required when two simulation models are running in-parallel and need to interact with each other by sharing their intermediate output information during the run.

Simulation Objective search for term

A Simulation Objective is a well-defined purpose of a Crisis Management Simulation supporting specific planning, training or decision support activities. The physical representation or the means to reach a simulation objective is the Simulation Case.

Simulation purpose search for term

The simulation purpose is the intention of the initiator of a simulation case (what the core question is and what the format of usage of the simulation).

Simulation results search for term

Simulation results are the output values of a specific simulation run. They provide the content of a specific scenario (series of world states).

Simulation run search for term

Depreciated. See simulation.

Simulation tool search for term

A software that implements a model and allows simulation, no matter if it provides an own user interface or operates integrated in a larger software.

Simulation view search for term

A CRISMA user interface that allows a CRISMA user to interact with a simulation case in terms of changing simulation parameters, starting, stopping and saving simulation runs.

Single model simulation solution search for term

Simulation tool that provides a particular model and allows the parameterization of the model and associated simulation runs. No other model is used or referenced and the main scope of the application is that of a particular simulation for a dedicated purpose in crisis management (e.g., plume dispersion, building evacuation, etc.).

Situation search for term

State of the crisis at a certain moment. Represented as a status of the scenario in a CRISMA world state.

Situation analysis search for term

A systematic collection and evaluation of past and present economical, political, social, and technological data, aimed at (1) identification of internal and external forces that may influence the organization's performance and choice of strategies, and (2) assessment of the organization's current and future strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and strengths.

Situational awareness search for term

The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. (Endsley, M. R. (1995b). Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors, 37, 32-64.)

Social Vulnerability search for term

The inherent characteristics of a community or social system that make it susceptible to the potentially damaging effects of a hazard (adapted according to UNISDR, 2009). In the understanding of CRISMA this starts with the identification of actual social elements at risk (population), thus comprehends human exposure. In the context of WP43 that concept further integrates vulnerability aspects relevant for getting population out of the hazard zone (evacuation) as well as aspects geared towards potential impacts.

Socio-technical system search for term

In the context of IT: A kind of system that includes hardware and software, has defined operational processes, and offers an interface, implemented in software, to human actors (Sterling & Taveter, 2009).

Software as a Service search for term

Software as a Service (Saas) is a concept to provide software (e.g. typical desktop software functionality) through service interfaces usually offered by an external service provider (with a commercial interest)

Spatio-temporal information fusion search for term

Spatiotemporal information fusion is the study of efficient methods for automatic or semi-automatic transformation of information from different sources and different points in time and space into a representation that provides effective support for human or automated decision making.

Standard search for term

Denotes relevant technical standards on interoperability and federated simulation.

Standard Unified Modelling, Mapping & Integration Toolkit search for term

Standard Unified Modelling, Mapping & Integration Toolkit (SUMMIT) is a modelling & simulation software environment that enables to seamlessly access integrated suites of modelling tools & data sources. See

Storyboard search for term

A storyboard is a step-by-step description of user interactions enhanced by mock-ups or screenshots as well as optionally by time information.

Strategic level search for term

Level of actions, management and decisions with long time span and broad focus with a set of defined long-term goals.

Sub project search for term

In order to facilitate the completion of a job, CRISMA project is organised in seven sub projects (SP1-SP7). SP1 is dedicated to technical/scientific cordination of the work, SP7 to project management, SP2 to use cases and reference scenarios, and the remaining three sub projects to development of the CRISMA building blocks and framework (SP3), models (SP4) and validation of the results through pilot applications (SP5).

SUMMIT search for term

see Standard Unified Modelling, Mapping & Integration Toolkit

System search for term

System is a set of entities connected together to make a complex whole or perform a complex function (Sterling & Taveter, 2009).
System can also be defined as a complex of interacting components and relationships among them that permit the identification of a boundary-maintaining entity or process (Laszlo & Krippner, 1998).

Systemic Vulnerability search for term

The concept of systemic vulnerability measures the tendency of a territorial element to suffer damage (generally functional) due to its interconnections with other elements of the same territorial system (Pascale et al., 2010)


T0 search for term

see Time of the original hazard event

Table top exercise search for term

Table top exercises use simulated scenarios designed to test and train the response capability of an organization to a given event. The scenarios require coordinated response to a realistic situation that develops with participants gathered to formulate responses to each development.

Tactical level search for term

Level situated one level above the operational level and carries out the orders given.

Tangible cost search for term

Refers to damages to goods and services that can have market values. Can be either direct or indirect tangible cost.

Task search for term

Smallest unit of work definition in CRISMA. The work pertinent to each of the CRISMA work packages is defined at the level of tasks.

Technical requirements search for term

Technical requirements define the functions or constraints needed by the system to achieve a goal. They specify how a goal should be accomplished by the system. Technical requirements can be separated according to their characteristics into functional and non-functional technical requirements. In CRISMA, technical requirements are created based on user stories.

Technology demonstrator search for term

Technology demonstrators consist of CRISMA technology showcase applications that are in principal crisis management independent.

Test search for term

A procedure intended to establish the quality, performance, or reliability of something, especially before it is taken into widespread use.

Tight simulation integration search for term

An approach towards coupling of several simulation models at a domain-specific, conceptual, and semantic levels. The standards DIS and HLA are designed for such integrated simulations. An example would be a system that integrates several vulnerability models of different infrastructures and takes into account interrelationships between them at any time of a simulation run.

Time dependent vulnerability search for term

Referring to physical vulnerability, time-dependent vulnerability is defined as the vulnerability affected by deterioration of elements characteristics due to ageing and/or damage.
In a broader sense, time dependent vulnerability generally indicates the variation of vulnerability characteristics over time (in the understanding of CRISMA, this e.g. also includes spatio-temporal patterns of exposure or varying situation patterns during the process of evacuation).

Time of the original hazard event search for term

Time at which the original hazard occurred (T0). After this moment other hazard events may occur has a consequence of cascading effects.

Transition search for term

A transition is a relationship between two CRISMA world states. It can originate either from a CRISMA simulation model run or from a manual change by a CRISMA user.

Transition search for term

A transition is a relationship between two CRISMA world states. It can originate either from a CRISMA simulation model run or from a manual change by a CRISMA user .

Transition matrix search for term

A matrix-like representation of the conditional probabilities P(IM2|IM1), indicating the probability that a triggered event with intensity IM2 occurs given the occurrence of a triggering event with intensity IM1.

Transition Point search for term

A Transition Point represents the type of the Transition that can be performed by the user at a certain defined point in a Simulation Case.

Tuning search for term

Act of changing the values or ranging of parameters of scenario with the aim of find the best performance in terms of impact.


Uncertainty search for term

It comes out when we are not sure about the outcome of a process (like a measure of a physical quantity, or the occurrence of a destructive event). Several factors, acting simultaneously or separately, are responsible for the existence of uncertainty; we can group those factors in two groups: those due to the intrinsic stochasticity of the process (the so-called aleatory uncertainty), and those due to the lack of or imprecise knowledge of the process (epistemic uncertainty) (Marzocchi, W., Sandri, L., and selva, J. BET_VH: a probabilistic tool for long-term volcanic hazard assessment, Bull. Volcanol. 72: 705-716, 2010)

Unit cost search for term

The cost allocated to a selected unit.

Unrest phase search for term

Variable duration phase and change in the scenario parameters; it can be divided into four sub-phases: Attention (no evacuation), pre-alarm (no evacuation), alarm (no evacuation), and evacuation.

Usage context search for term

see context of use

Use case search for term

A list of steps, typically defining interactions between a user and a system, to achieve a certain goal (Cockburn, 1999). A use case is described as "a generalized description of a set of interactions between the system and one or more actors, where an actor is either a user or another system". (Cohn, 2004).

User requirements search for term

User requirements represent what goals in crisis management need to be achieved by means of the system and what roles of stakeholders are involved in that. In CRISMA user requirements are represented by crisis-specific goal models and behavioural scenarios and the consolidated crisis management goal model for the ICMS.

User story search for term

A user story is a short, simple description of a feature described from the perspective of the role who desires the new capability, representing a stakeholder of the system. General form of a user story is “As a player of (some role), I need to perform (some activity) to achieve (some goal)”. It descirbes a small implementable fragment of user requirement from the perspective of a user. (Mike Cohn 2004)


Validation search for term

A process to assure that project results are coherent and in line with the project goals and to demonstrate and validate the tools developed. In CRISMA project this means evaluation of test results of CRISMA tools in the pilots and comparison of these results to the users needs and expectations as outlined in WP2 outcomes.

View Exercise view Incident view search for term

A simulation view with the purpose of supporting exercise activities
A simulation view with focus on incident aspects

Volunteer search for term

A volunteer worker who engages in emergency activity at the request (whether directly or indirectly) or with the express or implied consent of the chief executive (however designated), or of a person acting with the authority of the chief executive, of an agency to which an emergency response or recovery plan applies. (Sahana – Glossary)

Vulnerability search for term

The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard (UNISDR, 2009).

Vulnerability model search for term

Vulnerability models mean models to represent and classify the elements at risk.


Warning search for term

Dissemination of message signalling imminent hazard which may include advice on protective measures. (Sahana – Glossary)

Web Coverage Service search for term

Web Coverage Service (WCS) is one of the OGC standards. Can be compared to WMS, but delivers actual data instead of pictures of the data. So in contrast to WMS the data can be used for further processing. See (WCS, 2010).

Web Feature Service search for term

Web Feature Service (WFS) is one of the OGC standards. Defines requests and data encodings for a service storing geo-referenced data (the features) See (WFS, 2010).

Web Map Service search for term

Web Map Service (WMS) is one of the OGC standards. Defines request parameters and output formats for the delivery of Maps as pictures. See (WMS, 2006).

Web Processing Service search for term

Web Processing Service (WPS) is one of the OGC standards. Used to control processes, e.g. simulation model runs. Defines rules for parameters, input and output data requests. See (WPS, 2007)

Widget search for term

An element of a GUI realised as an component providing a specialized user interface functionality. A complete GUI consists of a number of widgets.

Work package search for term

In order to facilitate the completion of a job, each of the CRISMA sub projects is divided in work packages (WP). This is a smallest organisational unit in CRISMA, but the work allocated to each of the work packags is further divided in "tasks".

Workshop search for term

In the context of CRISMA it describes three initial meetings of the CRISMA project to share ideas and capabilities and to agree on issues across sub projects.

World search for term

Spatial and temporal context of an incident and the response

World State search for term

A particular status of the world, defined in the space of parameters describing the situation in a crisis management simulation, that represents a snapshot (situation) along the crisis evolvement. The change of world state, that may be triggered by simulation or manipulation activities by the CRISMA user, corresponds to a change of (part of) its data contents. A world state is the CRISMA architecture concept realising the CRISMA scenario ((situation (x,t)). A world state contains either some data(x,t) itself or contains a pointer to a previous world state that contains either the data or again a pointer.

World state space search for term

The world state space is an Information Space describing observations relevant for a specific class of crisis management simulations. Technically a Simulated world consists of a number of data slot descriptions as the elements of this information space. A Data slot references specific data required for a crisis management simulation e.g. a hazard map. A concrete and complete set of data referenced by the data slots of a simulated world is called a world state.


Xynthia search for term

Xynthia was a violent European windstorm which crossed Western Europe between 27 February and 1 March 2010. (Source: